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Web Links:
Thematic Holocaust Links

 

History of Antisemitism

•  VIDEO: "European Antisemitism from Its Origins to the Holocaust" (13:44), USHMM

•  VIDEO: "Exploring Roots of Antisemitism" (12:01), The Imperial War Museum
                Scroll towards bottom of page.

•  Pyramid of Hate Exercise, USC Shoah Foundation Institute

•  Antisemitism, USHMM

•  Antisemitism in History, USHMM

         - From the Early Church to 1400

         - The Early Modern Era, 1300-1800

         - The Era of Nationalism, 1800-1918

         - Racial Antisemitism, 1875-1945

         - World War I

•  Antisemitism: A Historical Survey, Museum of Tolerance Multimedia Learning Center

•  The Theological Roots of Antisemitism: A Christian View by Paul M. Van Buren,
         Museum of Tolerance Multimedia Learning Center

•  How did Antisemitism develop? The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

•  The History of Antisemitism, Southern Institute for Education and Research

•  Classical and Christian Antisemitism, remember.org

•  Why the Jews", an Exploration of Antisemitism,  Aish HaTorah

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion 

•  The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, USHMM

•  A Hoax of Hate - The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, ADL

•  The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Jewish Virtual Library

 

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Jewish Life Before the Holocaust

•  MAP: Jewish Population of Europe in 1933 - Population Data by Country, USHMM

•  ID Cards used at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum (PDF available)

•  Jewish Life in Europe Before the Holocaust, USHMM

•  Jewish Population of Europe in 1933: Population Data by Country, USHMM

•  Judaism and Jewish Life, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

•  Pre-war Jewish Memories, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

•  The Way We Lived: Exploring Jewish Life and Culture, The Imperial War Museum

•  People of a Thousand Towns: The Online Catalog of Photographs of Jewish Life in
       Prewar Eastern Europe, YIVO Institute for Jewish Research

•  MAP:  The Pale of Settlement, Facing HIstory and Ourselves

•  LESSON: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Exemplary Lesson: Pre-World War II European Jewish
       Life Photo Project, USHMM

•  VIDEO: Jews Before the War, Symposium, Part I, Sam Kassow, (26:47),
       Facing History & Ourselves

 

Germany

•  Jews in Pre-War Germany, USHMM

•  VIDEO: "Berlin - Symphony of a Great City" (1:01:53), YouTube,
       Documentary following a day in the life of the city of Berlin, 1927.
       A train pulls into the station before dawn and we watch the city come to life.

 

Poland

•  And I Still See Their Faces - Images of Polish Jews, Simon Wiesenthal Center

•  VIDEO:  "The Life and Death of a Small Town and the World of Polish Jews" (1:19),
         USHMM Lecture featuring Eva Hoffman, author of "Shtetl"

 

Russia

•  Beyond the Pale - The History of Jews in Russia


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The Victims

•  The Victims, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Mosaic of Victims, USHMM

•  Brochures on Non-Jewish Victims of the Nazi Era (includes PDF to download), USHMM

        - Jehovah's Witnesses

        - Poles

        - Homosexuals

        - Handicapped

        - Sinti & Roma (gypsies)

Children

•  The Children, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Child Survivors of the Holocaust, BBC

•  Children of the Holocaust, Museum of Tolerance
         
Stories of children cuaght up in the Holocaust from the Museum's photo passport cards

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "Life in the Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust," USHMM
•  VIDEO: "The Holocaust through the Eyes of Child Survivors" (17 min.),
          Video Segments for the Classroom, USC Shoah Foundation Institute

Jehovah's Witnesses

•  Jehovah's Witnesses: Victims of the Nazi Era, USHMM

  Jehovah's Witnesses: Persecution 1870-1936, USHMM

•  Arnold-Liebster Foundation

•  Declaration Denouncing Beliefs - statement imprisoned Jehovah's Witnesses were given to
          sign,USHMM

•  VIDEO: "Facing Persecution as a Jehovah's Witness" (31 min.),
          Video Segments for the Classroom, USC Shoah Foundation Institute

Homosexuals

•  Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals, USHMM

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 1933-1945," USHMM

•  Homosexuals: Victims of the Nazi Era, USHMM

•  Gays and Lesbians, USHMM

•  Do You Remember, When - Exhibit on the Life of Manfred Lewin, USHMM

•  Homosexuals & the Holocaust: Background & Overview, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Genocide of Homosexuals, University of Minnesota

•  READING: Isolating Homosexuals, Facing History & Ourselves
         
Find out how Hitler strengthened enforcement of Paragraph 155, a law that made
          homosexuality a crime in Germany

•  VIDEO: "Gad Beck on Rescuing His Lover, Manfred Lewin" (2:44), USC Shoah Foundation

•  VIDEO: "Documenting Nazi Persecution of Gays" (9:12), Josef Kohout/Wilhelm Kroepfl
          Collection (Curators Corner #13), USHMM

•  VIDEO: "The Frieda Belinfante Collection," (3:51), (Curators Corner #26), USHMM

 

Blacks

•  Blacks, USHMM

•  Blacks During the Holocaust, USHMM
  VIDEO: "Destined to Witness: Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany," (1:29), YouTube.
         
Based on the biography of the same name by Hans Jürgen Massaquoi.

Poles

  Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era, USHMM

•  The Pitel Family, one Polish family's experience told through a family photo, Yad           Vashem

Handicapped (also see section "The T-4 Program")

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "Nazi Persecution of the Disabled: Murder of the "Unfit," USHMM
• 
Mentally and Physically Handicapped: Victims of the Nazi Era, USHMM

Freemasons

•  Freemasonry Under the Nazi Regime, USHMM

Sinti and Roma (Gypsies)

•  Sinti and Roma: Victims of the Nazi Era, USHMM

•  READING: Targeting the Sinti and Roma, Facing History & Ourselves
           
Deepen your understanding of the Nazis' persecution of Sinti and Roma people
            during World War II.

  VIDEO: We Call Ourselves "Roma" (9:00), Facing History & Ourselves
           
Scholar Margareta Matache explains significant moments in the history of the
            Roma people.

 

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The Bystanders

•  The Bystanders, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  "The Perils of Indifference," a speech by Elie Wiesel, April 1999, The White House,
            The History Place/Great Speeches Collection

•  Bystanders, Yad Vashem

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "Some Were Neighbors: Collaboration & Complicity in the Holocaust,"               USHMM

 

The Church & the Holocaust

•  The German Churches and the Nazi State, USHMM

•  The Role of Churches: Compliance and Confrontation, ADL

•  The Vatican and the Holocaust, Jewish Virtual Library

 

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The Perpetrators

•  The Perpetrators, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Nazi Perpetrators, Jewish Virtual Library

•  The Perpetrators by Henry Friedlander, Museum of Tolerance Multimedia Learning Center

•  Auschwitz through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camps, USHMM

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "Some Were Neighbors: Collaboration & Complicity in the Holocaust,"
              USHMM


The Stanley Milgram Experiment
•  Milgram Experiment - Obedience to Authority, Explorable Psychology Experiments
•  "The Perils of Obedience" by Stanley Milgram, as it appeared in Harper's Magazine 1974
•  Milgram's Experiment on Obedience to Authority, SMS Marketing Services
•  VIDEO: "The Milgram Experiment, 1962 Full Documentary," (44:26), YouTube
•  VIDEO: "Milgram Experiment - Big History NL," (5:04), YouTube
•  
VIDEO:  "An Introduction to Stanley Milgram's Obedience to Authority - A Macat Psychology
                Analysis," (3:08), YouTube

The Stanford Prison Experiment

  The Stanford Prison Experiment, A Simulation Study on the Psychology of Imprisonment,
               Stanford Prison Experiment Official Website

•  The Real Lessons of the Stanford Prison Experiment, The New Yorker, June 12, 2015

•  The Stanford Prison Experiment, BBC
          

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Europe After World War I

•  ANIMATED MAP: Introduction to the Holocaust (1:57), USHMM

•  World War I: Aftermath, USHMM

•  World War I: Treaties and Reparations, USHMM

•  MAP:  Europe 1914, Wikimedia

•  MAP: Europe 1922, Jewish Virtual Library

•  MAP ANALYSIS: Europe Before and After WWI

•  ANIMATED MAP:  Europe After World War I, The Map as History

 

Treaty of Versailles

•  Treaty of Versailles, 1919, USHMM

•  VIDEO: Treaty of Versailles Documentary (19:14), BBC, YouTube

 

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Adolf Hitler

•  Adolf Hitler, remember.org

•  Adolf Hitler, about.com

•  Hitler's Family Tree, about.com

•  The Holocaust: Adolf Hitler, Jewish Virtual Library

•  The Rise of Adolf Hitler: From Unknown to Dictator of Germany, The History Place

•  Adolf Hitler: Man and Monster, BBC
•  Adolf Hitler and World War I: 1913-1919, Military Service, USHMM

•  HItler and World War I, from Propaganda Exhibit, USHMM

 

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The Nazi Rise to Power

•  The Nazi Rise to Power, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

•  Foundations of the Nazi State, USHMM

•  Third Reich: An OverView, USHMM

•  VIDEO: How Nazis Came to Power (16:44), Facing HIstory & Ourselves
       
This short film describes how the Nazis rose to power in 1930s Germany.

The Weimar Republic

•  The Weimar Republic, USHMM

  Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution, USHMM

•  Weimar Germany 1919-1933, History Home UK

•  The Weimar Republic, Yad Vashem

  IMAGE:  Antisemitic Weimar-Era Campaign Poster, Facing HIstory & Ourselves

•  ONLINE MODULE:  The Weimar Republic - The Fragility of Democracy,
       Facing History & Ourselves

•  VIDEO ACTIVITY: Weimar, BBC GCSE Bitesize

Weimar Republic Economics

•  Primary Sources: Weimar Economics, Facing History & Ourselves

•  Economics, casahistoria

•  Collapse: 1929-1933, casahistoria
•  The German Hyperinflation, 1923, Excerpt from Paper Money by "Adam Smith,"
                  (George J.W. Goodman), pp.57-62.

•  Hyperinflation-Germany 1923, YouTube (5:14)
                  NOTE:  Although an effective teaching tool, this video has grammatical errors.
•  A Look at German Inflation 1914-1924, A "National Coin Week" exhibit by Joel Anderson
•  Hyperinflation, John D. Clare, educator
•  German Railroad Notes of the 1923 Hyperinflation, John E. Sandrock

Weimar Republic Politics

•  Primary Sources: Weimar Politics, Facing History & Ourselves

•  READING:  Weimar Political Parties, Facing History & Ourselves

•  Nazi Germany/Political Parties, Spartacus Educatonal (UK)

•  Political Parties in the Reichstag (1920-1933), Jewish Virtual Library

•  READING: A Decline in Public Enthusiasm, Facing History & Ourselves
                 
Gain insight into a growing wariness of HItler in the mid=1930's through a
                  German police report and a letter from a U.S. diplomat.

•  READING: Hard Time Return, Facing History & Ourselves
                   
Compare the party platforms of the Communists, Nazis, and Social Democrats
                   in Germany's 1932 presidential elections, a time of deep economic crisis.

•  LESSON: The Weimar Republic-Historical Context and Decision Making,
                   Facing HIstory & Ourselves
                   
Students consider how economic, political, and social conditions in the
                    Weimar Republic impacted the Nazi party's appeal to some Germans.

•  LESSON: The Fragility of Democracy - HItler's Rise to Power, Facing HIstory & Ourselves
                   
Students examine how the choices made by German citizens, members of
                    parliament, and other leaders contributed to Hilter's rise to power.

•  IMAGE: National Socialism Election Poster, Facing History & Ourselves

 

The Nazi Party
•  The Nazi Party (NSDAP), Background & Overview, Jewish Virtual Library
•  The Nazi Party (NSDAP), Spartacus Educational (UK)

•  A Short HIstory of the Nazi Party, about.com
•  Principal Officials of the Nazi Party, Jewish Virtual Library

•  VIDEO:  "The Nazi Hierarchy," (2:21), about.com

•  Nazi German, Government Structure: Ministries & Party Organizations, World Future Fund

•  The SS and Police by Henry Friedlander, Museum of Tolerance Multimedia Learning Center

•  VIDEO ACTIVITY: Nazis, BBC GCSE Bitesize

•  VIDEOS: Hitler Speaking, Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive, USHMM
•  LESSON: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Exemplary Lesson: Learning from the Early Stages of the
         Holocaust, USHMM

                 

The Beer Hall (Munich) Putsch

•  Beer Hall Putsch (Munich Putsch), USHMM

•  The Beer Hall Putsch (November 8, 1923), Jewish Virtual Library

• "On this day: Adolf HItler makes his first grab for power in the Beer Hall Putsch,"
        The Telegraph (UK)

•  November 9 "Pseudo-Holiday", Calvin College German Propaganda Archive

•  Beer Hall Putsch of 1923, Third Riech in Ruins
        Shows events from the Putsch and how these places appear today.

•  VIDEO:  "8th November 1923: The Beer Hall Putsch Begins in Munich," (2:42),
        HistoryPod, YouTube


Mein Kampf
•   Mein Kampf, USHMM
•   Mein Kampf, Spartacus Educational (UK)
•   Excerpts from Mein Kampf, Hanover College
•   Mein Kampf, The HIstory Place

The Nazis Take Power, January 1933

•  POWERPOINTHItler's Rise to Power, BHEC

•  Chronology of the Holocaust, beginning January 30, 1933, USHMM

•  Hitler Comes to Power,USHMM

•  Nazi Rule, USHMM

•  Hitler's Leadership Style, BBC

•  READING: Hitler in Power, Facing HIstory & Ourselves
         
Consider the motivations and expectations of Paul von Hindenburg when he
          appointed Hitler to chancellor of Germany

•  READING: The Night of HItler's Triumph, Facing History & Ourselves
         
Read firsthand accounts of the day that HItler took office as chancellor of Germany
          in 1933.

•  LESSON: Examining HItler's First Radio Address, Facing History & Ourselves
         
Read the text of Hitler's first speech to the German people as chancellor, in which
          he describes his vision for the future of Germany.

•  READING: Pledging Allegiance, Facing HIstory & Ourselves
         
Compare the text of Germany's original military oath with HItler's new oath, and
          consider the implications of the oath's promise of allegiance to a single leader.

•  READING: "Restoring" Germany's Civil Service, Facing History & Ourselves
          Read a letter exchange between Adolf HItler and President Paul von Hindenburg
          regarding a law that suspended Jews from positions of civil service in Nazi Germany

•  READING: Controlling the Universities, Facing History & Ourselves
         
Learn how the Nazis pushed their ideology onto German universities, and how
          academics like Heidegger and Einstein responded.

 

The Reichstag Fire, February 1933

•  The Reichstag Fire, USHMM

•  Reichstag Fire Decree, USHMM

•  The Reichstag Fire: Historical Film Footage, USHMM

•  Nazi Terror Begins: 1933, USHMM

•  The "Legal Dictatorship," Yad Vashem

 

Enabling Act, March 1933

•  READING: Outlawing the Opposition, Facing History & Ourselves
           
Learn about HItler's early measures against "enemies of the state," including
            the Enabling Act and the first concentration camp at Dachau.

•  READING: Enabling Dictatorship, Facing History & Ourselves
           
Read the text of the Enabling Act, the law many historians argue was the legal basis
            for Hitler's dictatorship in Nazi Germany.

The Night of Long Knives, June 1934

•  Röhm Purge, USHMM

•  READING: The Night of the Long Knives, Facing History & Ourselves
            Learn about the Nazis' massacre of more than 200 SA leaders in January 1933.

•  VIDEO:  Night of the Long Knives (5:33), Facing History & Ourselves
            Jonathan Petropoulos discusses the importance of the 1934 violent purge
            in the Nazi party.

•  VIDEO: "The Assassination of Ernst Röhm (Night of the Long Knives)," (2:12), YouTube

Hindenburg Dies, August 1934

•  Death of German President von Hindenburg, USHMM

•  Hitler Becomes Fuhrer, The History Place

•  Wehrmacht Oath of Loyalty, D. Dickerson

•  VIDEO: "1934 Hindenburg Laid to Rest at Tennenberg," (3:06), YouTube

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Nazi Racial Ideology

•  Nazi Ideology and Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution, USHMM
         Includes 4 minute video of lecture by Dr. Will Meinecke on Nazi Racial Ideology.

•  Nazi Racism, USHMM

•  Victims of the Nazi Era: Nazi Racial Ideology, USHMM

•  What is Race? Is Race for Real? an interactive website, PBS

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION:  "Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race," USHMM

•  The Nazi Racial State, BBC

•  The Lebensborn Program, Jewish Virtual Library

•  National Socialist Racial Policy: A Speech to German Woman, Calvin College,
         German Porpaganda Archive

•  READING: Can A National Socialst Have Jewish Friends?
          Facing HIstory & Ourselves
          Melita Maschmann describes the contradictory way she viewed Jews, and
          particularly her Jewish classmates, while growing up in Nazi Germany.

•  LESSON: Those Who Don't Know: Identity, Membership, and Stereotypes,
          Facing History & Ourselves
          Students prepare to study prejudice and stereotyping in Nazi-occupied
          Germany by considering the ways that people are defined by others.

•  LESSON: Us and Them: Confronting Labels and Lies, Facing History & Ourselves
           
Students learn about the ways that people throughout history have created
            myths about race in order to justify discrimation and violence.

•  VIDEO: "The Uniqueness of Nazi Antisemitism," (2:17), Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  VIDEOS: "Racial Science," Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive, USHMM
        Various German short films related to racial science.

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Life in Nazi Germany

•  VIDEO: "Hitler's Germany - BBC History File," (18:46), BBC

•  Life in Nazi-controlled Europe, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

 

Daily Life

•  VIDEO: "Life in Hitler's Germany, Part I," (10:44), SchoolHIstory.co.uk

•  VIDEO: "Life in Hitler's Germany, Part II," (12:28), SchoolHistory.co.uk

 

Strength Through Joy Program

•  Strength Through Joy, Spartacus Educational

•  Swastikas by the Seaside, Peter Monteath

•  Robert Ley, The Great Ocean Liners

 

Foreign Policy

•  German Foreign Policay, 1933-1945, USHMM

•  Lebensraum, USHMM

•  Lebensraum, About.com

 

Economics

•  German Business and the Third Reich, Jewish Virtual Library

•  READING: The Battle for Work, Facing History & Ourselves
           
Learn about the Nazis' job creation program during their first year in power,
            which pursued both reemployemnt and military rearmament.

 

Terror

•  SS Police State, USHMM

•  The Terror Regime, Yad Vashem

•  VIDEO: Willful Ignorance (2:58), Facing HIstory & Ourselves

             Erik Larson describes how the American ambassador chose to ignore
             Nazi abuses in 1933.

•  VIDEO: Witnessing Antisemitic Violence (2:13), Facing History & Ourselves
           
Edith Reiss, from Bolton, England, describes witnessing antisemitic volence
            on the streets of Göttingen, Germany, when she was a visitor there in 1939.

•  READING:  Speaking in Whispers, Facing History & Ourselves
           
Learn about the role of cell and block wardesn, Germans who collected
            information about their neighbors in Nazi German society.

• READING:  Spying on Family and Friends, Facing History & Ourselves
            Discover the effects of the "Malicious Attacks" law, which criminalized
            dissent to the Nazi party, had on one Gaermn family and on German
            society as a whole.

•  READING: Do You Take the Oath, Facing HIstory & Ourselves
             
Reflect on the choices and actions of two Germans who had to decide
              whether ornot to pledge an oath of loyalty to Hitler

•  READING: Political Prisoners, Facing History & Ourselves
             
A member of the German Communist Party describes her experience in a
             Nazi concentration camp for political prisoners.

  READING: Storm Troopers, Elite Guards, and Secret Police, Facing History
             & Ourselves
             
Learn about the roles of the SA, the SS, and the Gestapo in Nazi Germany.


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Jewish Life in Nazi Germany

•  Rise of the Nazis and Beginning of Persecution,Yad Vashem

•  "When Their World Changed" Teaching about Germany Jewry between 1933 and
        1939, Yad Vashem

•  Nazi Antisemitism 1933-1939, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

  READING: The Empty Table, Facing History & Ourselves
        Read a German Jew's firsthand account of being alienated by her friends
        during the Nazis' first year in power.

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany (3:42),Yad Vashem/YouTube

 

Anti-Jewish Decrees

 Anti-Jewish Decrees: A Timeline, British Library

•  READING:  A Wave of Discrimination, Facing History & Ourselves
            Review a list of anti-Jewish laws, policies, and decrees made in Nazi Germany in 1933

•  READING:  Isolated and Demonized, Facing History & Ourselves
           
Learn about the hundreds of anti-Jewish laaws and measures passed in Germany
            during the first three years of World War II

•  MEMORIAL: "Bayerischer Platz: Remembering the Schöneberg District of Berlin"

          - Places of Remembrance: Memorial in the Bavarian Quarter, Berlin-Schöneberg,
                  Stih & Schnock

          - PHOTOS: Bavarian Quarter Memorial: 1933-1938, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

          - PHOTOS: An Art in Public Space Project, University of Minnesota Center for Holocaust
                   and Genocide Studies

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: New Laws, British Library

 

Boycott of Jewish Businesses, April 1933

•  The Boycott of Jewish Businesses, USHMM

•  RESOURCES: Early Boycott, Racial Legislation and Book Burnings, Yad Vashem

•  VIDEO: "Boycott of Jewish Businesses in Halle," (2:37), USHMM

 

Book Burning, May 1933

•  "The Burning of Books in Nazi Germany, 1933: The American Response," by Guy Stern,
          Museum of Tolerance

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Book Burning,"
          USHMM

 

Nuremberg Laws, September 1935

•  Nuremberg Race Laws: Translation, USHMM

•  The Nuremberg Race Laws, USHMM
•  The Nuremberg Laws, Jewish Virtual Library
•  ARTIFACT: Nuremberg Race Laws Chart, USHMM

•  The Nazification of Germany, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

 

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Nazi Propaganda

•  VIDEO: "Der Fuehrer's Face," (7:54), Disney Short Cartoon, 1934, YouTube

•  VIDEO: "Education for Death," (10:08), Disney Short Cartoon, 1934, YouTube

•  German Propaganda Archive, Calvin College

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION:  Propaganda, USHMM

•  Defining the Enemy, USHMM

•  Deceiving the Public, USHMM

•  Nazi Propaganda and Censorship, USHMM

•  Nazi Propaganda Posters, BBC

•  Nazi Propaganda Exhibit, History Whiz

•  Propaganda: Virtual Lesson, learntoquestion.com

Hitler Youth

•  Indoctrinating Youth, USHMM

•  Hitler Youth, The History Place

  The Nazi Party: Hitler Youth, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Hitler Youth, Prelude to War, 1933-1938, The History Place

•  VIDEO: Inside the World's Oldest Holocaust Museum (3:23), BBC
          Includes footage of the children's board game "Jews Out" and how it is played

  VIDEO: "HItler's Children" (43:22), The Hitler Youth, YouTube

 

Education

•  Education in Nazi Germany, Spartacus Educational (UK)

•  Propaganda, Culture and Education in the Third Reich, Yad Vashem

•  Nazism in the Classroom, History Today

•  Biology for the Middle School, Calvin Propaganda Archive

•  Geography: People and Living Space, Calvin Propaganda Archive

•  The Poisonous Mushroom, Calvin Propaganda Archive

•  The Poisonous Mushroom, Images

•  Trust No Fox on HIs Green Heath, Calvin Propaganda Archive

•  VIDEO: "Jews Out" Boardgame (1:57), BBC/Antiques Roadshow, Explanation of the game.

 

Newspapers

•  What Was Der Stürmer?, about.com

•  Caricatures from Der Stürmer: 1933-1945, Calvin Propaganda Archive

•  Der Stürmer, Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team

•  ARTIFACT: 1934 Cover of Der Stürmer, USHMM

Film

•  The Eternal Jew, a Nazi propaganda film, essay by Stig HornshØj-MØller,
           The Holocaust History Project

•  Triumph of the Will, History Today

•  Triumph of the Will, a Nazi propaganda film, YouTube (1:44:27)

Stamps

•  Nazi Postage Stamps, German Propaganda Archive, Calvin College

Berlin Olympics

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936," USHMM

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Violations of Versailles

German Expansion

•  German Pre-War Expansion, USHMM

•  MAP: German Territorial Expansion, 1935-39, German History in Documents & Images
•  VIDEO ACTIVITY: Road to World War II, BBC GCSE Bitesize

Invasion of the Rhineland, March 1936

•  Nazis March Into the Rhineland, The History Place

Invasion of Austria, March 1938

•  Anschluss, USHMM

•  Austria, USHMM

•  Vienna, USHMM

•  Nazis Take Austria, The History Place

•  Austria and Nazism: Owning Up to the Past, BBC

•  "Jewish in Austria, 1938-1945," C. Gwyn Moser, Museum of Tolerance

•  VIDEO: UFA Anschluss Footage; Parade; Hitler Speaks (9:05),
            Steven Spielberg Film & Video Archive, USHMM

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: The Ones I Lost (5:04), Centropa.
           
Jewish families from Vienna remember loved ones murdered in the Holocaust.

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Lilli Tauber (Austria) - "A Suitcase Full of Memories" (30:09),
            Centropa.
            A kindertransport to England. A ghetto in Poland. And a suitcase found in 1945 that
            tells a heartbreaking story.

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Max Uri (Austria) - "Looking for Frieda, Finding Frieda" (3:00),
            Centropa.
           
The story of Vienna-born Max Uri, who fell in love with Frieda Haber, but had to leave
             Austria in 1939.

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Kurt Brodmann (Austria) - "The Story of the Brodmann Family" (6:01),
            Centropa.
            
Kurt Brodmann tells how his father, Leopold, an actor, fell in love with Franzi
             Goldstaub, and about their life in emigration.

• SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Kitty and Otto Suschny (Vienna) - "Only A Couple of Streets Away
             from Each Other" (14:51), Centropa.
            
Kitty and Otto both grew up in Vienna, but never met.  After Kristallnacht they fled
             Austria, one to England, the other to Paleestine.  Upon returning to Vienna, searching for
             parents, they find each other.

The Munich Agreement / Invasion of the Sudetenland / September 1938

•  How Britain Hoped to Avoid War with Germany in the 1930s, Imperial War Museum

•  Czechoslovakia, USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia

•  Hitler's Plans for Czechoslovakia, BBC

•  The Sudetenland, Spartacus Educational

•  PRIMARY DOCUMENT: The Munich Pact, September 29, 1938,
              The Avalon Project/Yale Law School

•  VIDEO:  Munich Agreement Conference (1:29), USHMM / Steven Spielberg Archive
•  VIDEO:  Neville Chamberlain, "Peace in our Time" Speech (1:40), YouTube
•  VIDEO:  Sudetenland Ceded to Germany (:45), USHMM

Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939

•  Nazis Take Czechoslovakia, The History Place

•  Czechoslovakia, USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Dagmar Lieblova (Czech Republic) - "From Bohemia to Belsen...
           and Back Again" (14:00), Centropa,
           From a quiet, middle-class childhood in a small Bohemian town, to the hell of
           Bergen Belsen and back again.

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Jindrich Lion (Czech Republic) - "My Escape from Prague" (14.51),
           Centropa
           The story of a budding journalist escaping from his own country - not once, but twice.

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: "Peter Ginz and the Boys of Vedem" (19:22), Centropa
          
Traces life of Peter Ginz beginning with invasion of Czechoslovakia, his transport
           and life in Theresienstadt, and ultimate death at Auschwitz.

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Kristallnacht

•  Kristallnacht in Birmingham Newspapers, a resource created by the BHEC.
       
Articles reproduced from the Birmingham Public Library Archives.

•  SPECIAL FOCUS: Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms, USHMM

•  Kristallnacht, A Nationwide Pogrom, USHMM

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "It Came from Within," Yad Vashem

•  Re-Examining the Tipping Point: 70 Years Since the Kristallnacht Pogrom, Yad Vashem

•  Kristallnacht, "The Night of Broken Glass," Jewish Virtual Library

         - PRIMARY DOCUMENT: Heydrich's Instructions for Kristallnacht, Jewish Virtual Library

         - PRIMARY DOCUMENT: Discussions by the Authorities Following Kristallnacht,
          Jewish Virtual Library

•  Kristallnacht, PBS American Experience

•  Picturing Kristallnacht, Centropa

•  MAP: Destruction of Synagogues on Kristallnacht, A Teacher's Guide to The Holocaust

•  CEREMONY: "Shattered & Broken," Yad Vashem
           A 25 minute ceremony for grades 7-9.

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Miriam Ron, "This is Not the Story of Someone Else," Yad Vashem

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONIES: Remembering Kristallnacht (21:38), USC Shoah Foundation

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Emigration

•  Obstacles to Immigration, USHMM

•  Escape from German-Occupied Europe, USHMM

•  German-Jewish Refugees, 1933-1939, USHMM

•  Jewish Emigration from Germany, USHMM

•  Documentation Required for Emigration from Germany (PDF), USHMM

•  Documentation Required for Immigration Visas to Enter the U.S. (PDF), USHMM

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "Flight and Rescue," USHMM

•  Immigration & Refugee Policy During WWII, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Emigration, Nazi Policies and Jewish Initiatives, Yad Vashem

•  CHART: Jewish Emigration from Nazi Territories 1933-1941, Yad Vashem

•  CHART: Jewish Emigration from Germany and Austria, 1933-1939, According to Destination,
           Yad Vashem

•  CHART: Immigrants Admitted to the U.S. - Fiscal Years 1900-2002, INS

Plans to Remove the Jews from Europe

• "Nisko: The First Experiment in Deportation," by Jonny Moser, Museum of Tolerance

•  Nisko and Lublin Plan, Yad Vashem

•  Madagascar Plan, about.com

•  Madagascar Plan, Yad Vashem

The Evian Conference

•  The Evian Conference, USHMM

•  Evian Conference, Yad Vashem

•  Summary of the outcomes from the Evian Conference, Facing Hisotry and Ourselves

The Kindertransport

•  The Kindertransport Association

•  Kindertransport: 1938-1940, USHMM

•  VIRTUAL TOUR: "The Kindertransport Journey: Memory into History," The Kindertransport
           Association
           
Virtual tour of exhibition panels that trace the journey of the Kindertransport.

•  Kindertransport, BBC

•  PHOTO STORY: 6 Stories of the Kindertransport, The Imperial War Museum

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONIES: "Child Survivors of the Holocaust," BBC
•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONIES: British Library Sound Archive, Jewish Survivors of the Holocaust
             Collection, enter 'Kindertransport' in search field

The Wagner-Rogers Bill

•  U.S. Policy During WWII: The Wagner-Rogers Bill, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Through a Historian's Eyes: The Wagner Rogers Bill, USHMM History Unfolded

•  The Wagner-Rogers Bill: Debate, A Lesson Plan for Middle & High School Students Learning
          about U.S. Immigration and/or the Holocaust, American Immigration Law Foundation

The St. Louis

•  Voyage of the St. Louis, USHMM

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION:  "Voyage of the St. Louis,"  USHMM

•  ANIMATED MAP: Voyage of the St. Louis, USHMM

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Dr. Sol Messinger, "Local doctor shares chilling story of surviving
           Holocaust," The Buffalo News

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The T-4 Program

•  "Euthanasia" Killings, USHMM

•  Euthanasia Program, USHMM

•  The Murder of the Handicapped, USHMM
•  
T4 Medical Killing Program, remember.org

•  The Nazi Euthanasia (T-4) Program, Jewish Virtual Library
•  Cardinal Clemons von Galen, "Against Nazi Euthanasia,"
        The History Place/Great Speeches Collection

 

Eugenics

•  The American Eugenics Movement

 

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WW II and the Invasion of Poland

World War II - General Information

•  The Road to War: 1919-1939, historical with photos and broadcast recordings,
        The Authentic History Center

•  ANIMATED MAP: World War II and the Holocaust (6:34), USHMM

•  POWERPOINT: The Progression of World War II
       (
must be downloaded; contains audio; click down arrow to change slides)

•  INTERACTIVE MAP: Western Europe 1939-1941, National Archives, UK

•  Axis Alliance in World War II, USHMM

•  World War II in Europe, USHMM

•  World War II History, BBC

•  World War II in Depth, USHMM

•  PHOTO STORY: How Europe Went to War in 1939, The Imperial War Museum

 

Invasion of Poland

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: Remembering the German Invasion of Poland, USHMM

•  Invasion of Poland, Fall 1939, USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia
•  Nazi Invasion of Poland in 1939, Images and Documents from the Harrison Forman Collection,
              University of Wisconsin

•  Britain's "Phony" Start to the Second World War, The Imperial War Museum

•  PRIMARY DOCUMENTS: Documents Relating to Germany's Invasion of Poland,
              Yale Law School - Avalon Project

•  PRIMARY DOCUMENTS: Great Britain's Response to Germany's Invasion of Poland,
              Yale Law School - Avalon Project

•  RADIO BROADCAST: Chamberlain Declares War on Germany (4:32), BBC

•  Neville Chamberlain, "On the Nazi Invasion of Poland,"
             The History Place/Great Speeches Collection

•  VIDEO: Germany Invades Poland (World War II), (8:04), YouTube
            
Taken from the U.S. government film, "The World at War."

•  VIDEO: German Assault on Warsaw, Poland 1939, Silent Newsreel (13:01) YouTube

•  VIDEO: Invasion of Poland, 1943 War Department Film by the Signal Corps, YouTube

             (Part 1 of 3, 6:51)

             (Part 2 of 3, 7:26)

             (Part 3 of 3, 5:49)

•  VIDEO: German Invasion of Poland in 1939 - Full Length Historical Documentary (20:09),
             YouTube

•  VIDEO: The Last Generation - Poland (40:16), YouTube, Journeyman Pictures
             
The story of Zabno, Poland, a haven for Jewish families until war broke out.

•  VIDEO: Haya-Lea Detinko (Russia) - "Surviving Stalin's Gulag" (17:19), Centropa
             
Haya-Lea was born in Rovno, Poland.  She grew up in a traditional Jewish family.
              But when the Soviets took eastern Poland in September 1939, she was sentenced to
              hard labor in Siberia.

•  VIDEO: Mieczyslaw Weinryb (Poland) - "My Town of Zamosc" (7:17), Centropa
             
The story of a group of Zionist friends in Zamosc and their fates during - and after -
               the war.


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The Yellow Star

•  Holocaust Badges, Holocaust Memorial Center

•  Jewish Badge, USHMM

•  Jewish Badge: During the Nazi Era, USHMM

•  ARTIFACT:  The Yellow Star of David, USHMM

•  The Jewish Badge, Yad Vashem

•  The Yellow Star, about.com

•  Jewish Badges During the Holocaust: Photographs & Overview, Jewish Virtual Library

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Emanuel (Manny) Mandel: Wearing the Yellow Star a a Child
               in Hungary, USHMM, First Person Podcast Series

 

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The Ghettos

•  Ghettos, USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia

•  "The Ghettos" by Yisrael Gutman, Museum of Tolerance Multimedia Learning Center

•  Ghettos, Jewish Virtual Library

•  The Ghettos, aish.com

•  Types of Ghettos, USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia

•  Ghettos in Poland, USHMM, The Holocaust - A Learning Site for Students

•  The Ghettoization Process, Yad Vashem

•  The Ghettos, from Holocaust: An End to Innocence by Seymour Rossel

•  List of Camps & Ghettos, Voices of the Holocaust

•  MAP: Ghettos of Occupied Europe 1939-1944, USHMM

•  PHOTOS:  Segregation of Jews, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  "Holocaust Numismatics," by Joel J. Forman, Museum of Tolerance
        
Discussion of coins & currency used in the ghettos and camps.

•  VIDEO: "The Ghettos" (16:19), Yad Vashem / Video Toolbaox, YouTube

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONIES: Ghettos and Deportation, British Library

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONIES: Ghettos, USHMM

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Erika Eckstut: A Young Girl's Experience in the Czernowitz Ghetto,
           USHMM, First Person Podcast Series

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Yisrael Gutman Describes the Warsaw Ghetto and the camps of
           Majdanek, Auschwitz and Mauthausen, (2:15), Yad Vashem/YouTube

Jewish Councils (Judenraete)

•  The Jewish Councils and the Issue of Leadership, Yad Vashem

•  Jewish Councils (Judenraete), USHMM

•  Judenräte and Other Representative Bodies, YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe

 

Life in the Ghettos

•  Life in the Ghettos, USHMM

•  Daily Life in the Ghettos, Yad Vashem

•  Life in the Ghettos, YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe

•  INTERACTIVE WEBSITE:  "Children in the Ghetto," Yad Vashem

•  LESSON PLAN: "Mutual Assisance Within the Ghetto Walls," Grades 7-9, Yad Vashem
             Highlights some of the organizations established to coordinate social welfare activities

 

Resistance in the Ghettos

•  Spiritual Resistance in the Ghettos, USHMM

•  Resistance in the Ghettos, Yad Vashem

 

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Specific Ghettos

Bialystok (Poland)

•  Bialystok, USHMM

 

Kovno (Lithuania)

  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto," USHMM

•  MUSIC: Heartstrings, Music of the Holocaust - Kovno Ghetto and Lithuania, Yad Vashem
         
Songs of the Kovno Ghetto

 

Krakow (Poland)

  VIDEO: "Moving into the Krakow Ghetto" (1:29)

 

Lodz (Poland)
•  ANIMATED MAP: Lodz, USHMM

•  Lodz, USHMM

•  Lodz Ghetto, USHMM

•  Lodz Ghetto, about.com

•  Lodz Ghetto: A case study, The Holocaust Explained

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION:  Give Me Your Children: Voices from the Lodz Ghetto, USHMM

  PHOTOS: Photos from the Lodz Ghetto, zwoje-scrolls.com

•  "Who Took the Pictures" The Ghetto Photography of Mendel Grossman in Lodz, as Compared
          with the Ghetto Photography of German "Ghetto Tourists," Yad Vashem

•  VIDEO: "Voices from the Lodz Ghetto" (4:09), USHMM
         
Archivist discusses photos from the Lodz Ghetto
•  VIDEO: "Lodz Ghetto, " historical footage, (1:33), USHMM

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY:  Shimon Srebrnik and Tola Wallach Melzer Describe Daily Life in
         the Lodz Ghetto (4:42), Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  MUSIC: Heartstrings, Music of the Holocaust - Lodz, Yad Vashem
         
Medley of 14 songs arranged to pre-war Yiddish folksongs.

Riga (Latvia)

•  Riga, USHMM

 

Theresienstadt (Czechoslovakia)

•  Theresienstadt, USHMM

•  Terezin, Jewish Virtual Library

•  STUDY GUIDE: "Voices of Terezin," The Theresienstadt Ghetto, American University

•  ONLINE LESSON: "Between the Worlds: Social Circles in the Theresienstadt Ghetto,"
          Yad Vashem

  VIDEO: The Gift of a Town/Terezin (9:48), You Tube

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: "Peter Ginz and the Boys of Vedem" (19:22), Centropa
         
 Traces life of Peter Ginz beginning with invasion of Czechoslovakia, his transport
           and life in Theresienstadt, and ultimate death at Auschwitz.

 

Vilna (Lithuania)

•  "The Cultural Life in the Vilna Ghetto," by Solon Beinfeld, Museum of Tolerance

•  Vilna, USHMM

•  MUSIC: Heartstrings, Music of the Holocaust - Vilna Ghetto, Yad Vashem
         
Assortment of theatre and cultural production from the ghetto

•  MUSIC: Heartstrings, Music of the Holocaust - Partisans of Vilna, Yad Vashem
         
Songs sung by the partisans of Vilna

 

Warsaw (Poland), For Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, see "Resistance"

•  Warsaw, USHMM

•  The Warsaw Ghetto, a case study, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION:  Dignity & Defiance: The Confrontation of Life and Death in the Warsaw
            Ghetto, Simon Wiesenthal Center

•  ANIMATED MAP: The Warsaw Ghetto, USHMM

•  PHOTOS: Photographs from the Warsaw Ghetto, Yad Vashem

•  PHOTOS: The Warsaw Ghetto, zwoje-scrolls.com

•  VIDEO: "Daily Life in the Warsaw Ghetto" (1:24), USHMM

•  LESSON: "Spiritual, Educational & Physical Resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto,"
            A Six Day Lesson Plan for Middle School, Sol A. Factor, Cleveland Heights High School

•  Beit Lohamei Haghetaot - The Ghetto Fighters' House Museum

•  PRIMARY DOCUMENT: The Stroop Report: The Warsaw Ghetto is No More,
            Jewish Virtual Library

•  LEARNING GUIDE: Time Capsule in a Milk Can: Emanuel Ringelblum and the Milk Can
          Archives of the Warsaw Ghetto, USHMM

•  VIDEO: "Oneg Shabbat: Emanuel Ringelblum's Underground Archive in the Warsaw Ghetto"
           (8:47), Yad Vashem

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Yosef Charny Describes Starvation in the Warsaw Ghetto (1:27),
          Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Halina Birenbaum, Masha Putermilch, and Yosef Charny Describe
          the Mass Deportation from the Warsaw Ghetto (4:14),
          Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Marcel Reich-Ranicki Describes the Cultural Life in the Warsaw
           Ghetto (3:02), Yad Vashem/YouTube

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The War in the West

•  German Rule in Occupied Europe, USHMM

•  The German Invasion of Western Europe, USHMM

•  INTERACTIVE MAP: Jews in Occupied Countries, Jewish Virtual Library

•  INTERACTIVE MAP: Western Europe 1939-1941, National Archives, UK

Denmark

•  Denmark, USHMM

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Denmark, USHMM

Norway

•  Norway, USHMM

•  VIDEO: Norway: Historical Film Footage, USHMM

Belgium

  Belgium, USHMM

•  VIDEO: Belgium, Historical Film Footage, USHMM

Netherlands

•  The Netherlands, USHMM

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: The Netherlands, USHMM

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONIES: Survivors Describe the Nazi Occupation of the Netherlands (3:38),
            Yad Vashem/YouTube

France

•  France, Between the Wars, USHMM

•  ANIMATED MAP:  The Fall of France (Dunkirk), BBC

•  What You Need to Know about the Dunkirk Evacuations, The Imperial War Museum

•  The Vichy Police on Jewish Deportation, BBC

Britain

•  "Churchill and the Holocaust" by Sir Martin Gilbert, BBC

•  What Was the Secret to Winning The Battle of Britain, BBC

•  The Battle of Britain, The Imperial War Museum
       
Various readings, photos stories, and videos.

•  ANIMATED MAP: The Battle of Britain, History Animated

•  8 Things You Need to Know about the Battle of Britain, The Imperial War Museum

•  How the Luftwaffe Fought the Battle of Britain, The Imperial War Museum

•  Listen to RAF Pilots Tell the Story of the Battle of Britain, The Imperial War Museum

•  What Was the 'Dowding System'?, The Imperial War Museum

•  VIDEO:  Secrets of the Dead, Churchill's Deadly Decision (1:12), PBS/YouTube
       One of the long-forgotten stories of WWII, and one that was ultimately integral to America's
       involvement in the war.  This is the story of the British destruction of the French naval fleet
       at Mers-El-Kebir

        

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The War in the East

•  INTERACTIVE MAP: Western Europe 1942-1945, National Archives, UK

 

Estonia

•  Murder of the Jews of the Baltic States, Yad Vashem

•  MAP:  Major Ghettos in the Baltic States, USHMM

•  Estonia, USHMM

•  German Occupation in Estonia 1941-1944, Estonica

•  Holocaust in Estonia, Estonica

 

Lithuania

•  Lithuania, USHMM

•  Holocaust in LIthuania, Vil News

•  SURVIVOR TESTIMONY: Shalom Shorenson Describes the Murder of Jews in
         Ponar (3:23), Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  READING: The Holocaust in Lithuania, Facinb History and Ourselves

•  Polish Jewish Refugees in Lithuania, 1939-40, USHMM

 

Latvia

•  Latvia, USHMM

•  Riga, USHMM

•  VIDEO: Einsatzgruppen - Liepaja, Latvia, historical footage (1:42), USHMM

 

Soviet Union

•  Invasion of the Soviet Union, June 1941, USHMM

•  The Eastern Front: Photographs as Propaganda, Yad Vashem

•  PRIMARY DOCUMENT: Vyacheslav Molotov, "The Nazi Invasion of Russia,"
          The History Place/Great Speeches Collection

 

Ukraine

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: The Holocaust in Ukraine, USHMM

•  Kiev and Babi Yar, USHMM

•  Teaching about the Holocaust of the Jews of Kiev, Yad Vashem

•  VIDEO: Ukrainian artist, winner of Ukraine's version of "America's Got Talent," uses a giant
        light box and "sand painting" to interpret Germany's invasion of occupation of Ukraine
        during World War II (8:33), Huffington Post

 

Einsatzgruppen

•  Einsatzgruppen (Mobile Killing Units), USHMM

•  Einsatzgruppen and other SS and Police Units in the Soviet Union, USHMM

•  The Einsatzgruppen (contains many links), Jewish Virtual Library

•  ONLINE EXHIBIT:  "The Untold Stories: The Murder Sites of the Jews in the Occupied
           Territories of the Former USSR," Yad Vashem

•  MAP:  The Routes of the Einsatzgruppen Killings, Yad Vashem

•  PRIMARY DOCUMENT: "The Jaeger Report," December 1941, Jewish Virtual Library

•  EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT: Holocaust Mass Shooting, Hermann Friedrich Graebe,1942,
           Modern History Sourcebook
 

• VIDEO: "Secrets of a Nazi Mascot" (11:05)
         The story of Alex Kurzem from Koidanov, USSR, a young Jewish boy taken in as a Nazi
         mascot , CBS 60 Minutes/YouTube


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The War in the South

•  Animated Map of the War in the Mediterranean & North Africa, 1940-45,
         The National Archives Learning Curve/UK

•  Sephardic Jews During the Holocaust, USHMM

Greece

•  Traces of History: The Jewish Community in Salonika, Greece, Yad Vashem

•  The Holocaust in Greece, a USHMM online exhibition, USHMM

•  Greece, USHMM

•  The Invasion of the Balkans and the Battle for Greece and Crete 1940-41, History Animated

•  "For That, It Deserves a Prize" - The Story of a Two-Thousand Year Old Jewish Community
         in Ioannina, Greece, Yad Vashem

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivor Yaacov Handali Describes Deportation from Greece
         (2:50), Yad Vashem/YouTube

Yugoslavia

•  Axis Invasion of Yugoslavia, USHMM

•  Axis Invasion of Yugoslavia, Personal Stories, USHMM

Romania

•  Romania, USHMM

•  Romania, Personal Stories,USHMM

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivor Ester Gebelman Describes the Killing Site
         Bogdanovka in Romania (3:49), Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  Video: Laszlo Nussbaum (Romania)- Europe Without Borders (4:15), Centropa
         A family story of changing borders and stubborn optimism.

•  Video: Juci Scheiner (Romania)- Love on a Motorcycle (4:22), Centropa
         A postwar story of love, dignity and hope, set in the Transylvanian city of Targu Mures.

Hungary

•  Hungary before the German Occupation, USHMM

•  Video: Introduction on Hungarian Jewish History, (7:06), Centropa
         A short film on Hungary and its Jews in the 20th century.

•  Hungary after the German Occupation, USHMM

•  Hungary after the German Occupation, Personal Stories, USHMM

•  Video: Miklos Braun (Hungary) - The Wedding Photo (3:29), Centropa
         The gripping story of Miklos Braun, who fell in love with Vera Wexler. They married
         during the war, but then Miklos was taken to forced labor.

•  Video: Ernest Galpert (Hungary) - Growing up Religious (4:54), Centropa
          Ernest Galpert grew up in Mukacevo (or Munkacs, in Hungarian), a city with one of the
          most colorful Jewish histories in Central Europe.

  Video: Piroska Hamos (Hungary) - Life on the Danube (5:30), Centropa
          Piroska Hamos tells a story of her boating club in pre-war Hungary, of summers along
          the Danube, and raising her family. Then war came.

  Video: Judit Kinszki (Hungary) - Love on a Paper Airplane (5:26), Centropa
          Ilona Gardonyi was sitting at her desk when a paper airplane flew onto it. A note read,
          "Please meet me after work," and it was sent by the very shy Imre Kinszki...

  Video: Panni Koltai (Hungary) - 3 Generations, 6 Weddings (3:46), Centropa
           Panni Koltai was born in 1915 as the fourth girl in the Family of Ferenc Fridemann, a
           gentleman's tailor in the small town of Eger in Norther Hungary.

  Video: Mariann Szamosi (Hungary) - The Women who Taught Me Everything (4:49), Centropa
           The story of an assimilated, well-to-do Jewish family living in Nagykoros, when Mariann's
            father lost his business.

Bulgaria

•  Bulgaria, USHMM

•  Bulgaria, Personal Stories, USHMM

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivor Describes the Rescue of Bulgarian Jewry (2:12),
         Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  Video: The History of Bulgarian Jewry During the Holocaust (11:01), Centropa
          Was Bulgarian Jewry rescued during the Holocaust? Some say emphatically not.
          Others say yes.

  Video: Matilda Albuhaire (Bulgaria) - A Sephardic Family Story (11:33), Centropa
           A Sephardic tale that takes us from Istanbul to Sofia.

  Video: Larry and Rosa Anzhel (Bulgaria) - Married Twice in a Lifetime (10:40), Centropa
           A Sephardic love story that takes us into Bulgaria during World War II.

Albania

•  Where Religious Prejudice and Hate did not Exist: The Jews in Albania, Yad Vashem

•  Besa: A Code of Honor, Muslim Albanians who Rescued Jews During the Holocaust,
         Yad Vashem

Italy

• Italy, USHMM

•  Italy, Personal Stories, USHMM

•  "Refuge and Persecution in Italy, 1933-1945," by Mary Felstiner, Museum of Tolerance

•  The Hotel Meina, animation of the story from the New York Times

 

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The Wannsee Conference

•  Wannsee Conference and the Final Solution, USHMM

•  Wannsee Protocol, January 20, 1942, The Avalon Project, Yale Law School

•  House of Wannsee Conference: Memorial and Educational Site

•  Video: "The House of the Wannsee Conference" (8:42), USHMM/YouTube

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The Final Solution

•  Final Solution: Overview, USHMM

•  Final Solution, USHMM

•  The Final Solution, Jewish Virtual Library

•  What was the Final Solution?, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

•  The Final Solution, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

•  1942 - The "Final Solution," The Holocaust Chronicle      

•  Animated Map: The Final Solution, The Map as History

•  Video: Heinrich Himmler's speech to the SS at Poznan about the ongoing extermination
          of the Jewish people (6:00)
, YouTube

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Deportations

•  "The Forgotten Part of the 'Final Solution': The Liquidation of the Ghettos," by Wolfgang
        Scheffler, Museum of Tolerance

•  Deportations by Christopher R. Browning, Museum of Tolerance Multimedia Learning Center

•  Uprooting and Deportation, Yad Vashem

•  Deportation to the Camps, aish.com

•  Map: The European Rail System, USHMM

•  Video "Holocaust Survivor Describes Escape from Cattle Car" (2:55), Yad Vashem

•  Lesson Plan:  "Written in Pencil in the Sealed Freightcar" - A Poem by Dan Pagis,
        Yad Vashem

•  Lesson Plan:  "The Transport," Yad Vashem

•  Video: Curator Discusses Man's Last Letter, (1:59), USHMM,
        Letter written by Otto Simmonds from the railroad car deporting him to Auschwitz from
        the camp of Drancy in France.
•  Video: Toyland (14:03), YouTube/San Francisco Jewish Film Festival
        1942: What happens when a German kid believes that his Jewish neighbors are going to
        Toyland?  2009 Academy Award Winner for Best Live Action Short Film.

•  Personal Histories: Deportations, USHMM

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivors Describe Deportations from Cracow, Poland (3:41),
        Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivors Describe Deportations from Hungary (3:24),
         Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivor Rita Weiss Describes Deportation to the Camps
         (2:33), Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivors Halina Birenbaum, Masha Putermilch, and Yosef
        Charny Describe the Mass Deportation from the Warsaw Ghetto (4:14),
        Yad Vashem/YouTube

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The Camps

•  Nazi Camps, USHMM

        - Concentration Camps, 1933-1939

        - Concentration Camps, 1939-1942

        - Concentration Camps, 1942-1945

•  Concentration Camp System: In Depth, USHMM

•  Killing Centers: Overview, USHMM

•  Concentration Camps, Jewish Virtual Library

•  What Were the Camps?, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

•  The Nazi Camp System, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

•  The Nazi Concentration Camps, A teaching and learning resource, University of London

•  Chronology of the Nazi Camp System 1933-1945, Holocaust Memorial Center

•  Concentration Camp Listing with Links, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Articles About Different Camps, USHMM

•  Virtual Reality Movies of the Camps as They are Today, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Interactive Map: Main Nazi Camps and Killing Sites, Yad Vashem

•  Interactive Map showing Camps with pronunciation and brief description, A Teacher's Guide to

         the Holocaust

•  Classification System in Nazi Concentration Camps, USHMM

•  "Holocaust Numismatics," by Joel J. Forman, Museum of Tolerance
        
Discussion of coins & currency used in the ghettos and camps.

 

Conditions

•  The Prisoner's World, Yad Vashem

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivor Rita Weiss Describes Daily Life in the Concentration
       Camps (2:33), Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  Survivor Testimonies: Survivor Walter Zwi Bacharach Describes Hunger in the Camps (1:13),
       Yad Vashem/YouTube

 

Slave Labor

•  Forced Labor: Overview, USHMM

•  Labor and Forced Labor Camps, Yad Vashem

•  Survivor Testimonies: Survivors Describe Slave Labor in the Camps(4:08),
        Yad Vashem/YouTube
     

 

•  Images and Art from the Camps, remember.org

•  Videos: Concentration Camps, Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive, USHMM

•  Survivor Testimonies: The Camps, British Library

•  Personal Histories: Camps, USHMM             

•  Survivor Testimonies: Survivor Shimon Srebrnik Describes Chelmno (4:17),
        Yad Vashem/YouTube

     

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Operation Reinhard Camps

•  Operation Reinhard, USHMM

•  Personal Stories, Operation Reinhard, USHMM

•  Killing Centers: Overview, USHMM

 

Belzec

•  Belzec, USHMM

•  Belzec Chronology, USHMM

•  Personal Stories: Belzec, USHMM

Sobibor

•  Sobibor, USHMM

•  Sobibor Chronology, USHMM

•  Personal Stories: Sobibor, USHMM

Treblinka

•  Treblinka, USHMM

•  Treblinka Chronology, USHMM

•  Treblinka: A Digital Reconstruction of the Nazi Extermination Camp, Treblinka Museum

•  "Uprising in Treblinka," essay by Samuel Rajzman, survivor

•  Personal Stories: Treblinka, USHMM

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivor Eliahu Rosenberg Describes Treblinka Death Camp
          (5:34), Yad Vashem/YouTube

 

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Auschwitz

•  "The First Report About Auschwitz," by John S. Conway, Museum of Tolerance

 

Jewish Life in Oswiecim Before the War

•  Auschwitz Jewish Center

•  Oshpitzin (the name the Jews of Oswiecim called their town), Auschwitz Jewish Center
         Explore a virtual map of Oswiecim and a guidebook to pre-war Jewish life.

  Video: "Oshpitsin. Save from Oblivion." (37:00), Auschwitz Jewish Center
         A history of Jewish life in Oswiecim.

Auschwitz, The Camp

•  Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum

•  Auschwitz, USHMM

•  Auschwitz, an animated map presentation, USHMM

•  Interactive Map of Auschwitz, BBC

•  Video: Architecture of Murder-the Auschwitz-Birkenau Blueprints (7:08),
         Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  Rudolf Höss: Commandant of Auschwitz, BBC

•  Auschwitz: Then and Now, an online exhibit, remember.org

•  Auschwitz-Birkenau, Current Photos, remember.org & Alan Jacobs

•  Virtual Tour of Auschwitz, The State Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau

•  Inside the Epicenter of the Horror - Photographs of the Sonderkommando, Yad Vashem

•  Auschwitz: Guide to Krema IV Images, The Nizkor Project

•  Lesson Plan: Learning and Remembering About Auschwitz-Birkenau, Grades 10-12,
         (1.5-2.0 hours), Yad Vashem

•  Music at Birkenau, Music and the Holocaust

•  Auschwitz, Then and Now, remember.org

   A comparison of selected pieces of survivor art with contemporary photographs of Auschwitz.

 

The Auschwitz Album

•  The Auschwitz Album, Yad Vashem

•  What Is the Photograph's Context? The Auschwitz Album, Yad Vashem

 

The Höcker Album

•  Auschwitz Through the Lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi Leadership at the Camp,
         a USHMM online exhibition, USHMM

 

The Vrba Report

•  Escapees from Auschwitz/The Weczler-Vrba Report, remember.org

•  Exposing Auschwitz: The Vrba Report, aish.com

 

Liberation

•  Liberation of Auschwitz, a USHMM online exhibition, USHMM

•  Video: "Liberation of Auschwitz" (2:11), USHMM

 

Videos

•  Video:  "Encountering Auschwitz" (9:23), USHMM

•  Video:  Footprints/Discovering the Holocaust Through Artifacts (8:25), Institute for
          Education/University of London

          Lesson on examining a child's shoe to tell a story.

•  Video: "A Computer Walk Through Crematorium II at Auschwitz-Birkenau" (3:06), YouTube

•  Video: "The Auschwitz II-Birkenau Sonderkommando" (24 min.), USC Shoah Foundation        
          Institute

•  Video: "Surviving Auschwitz II - Birkenau," USH Shoah Foundation Institute

          Part I:  14:55

          Part II:  13:20

•  Videos: Auschwitz, Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive, USHMM

Testimony

•  Surviving Auschwitz - Five Personal Journeys, an online exhibit with testimonies,
          USC Shoah Foundation

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivors Describe Selection in Auschwitz (4:53),
          Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  Radio Broadcast:  Marianne Grant tells how she was forced to paint for Dr. Josef Megele
           in Auschwitz (58:00), BBC

Artwork

•  Auschwitz Paintings by Survivor Jan Komski, remember.org

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Other Camps

Bergen-Belsen

• Bergen-Belsen, USHMM

• The Holocaust and Bergen-Belsen, The Imperial War Museum

• Radio Broadcast: Richard Dimbleby describes Bergen-Belsen Shortly after Liberation
      (11:52), BBC

• Radio Broadcast: Patrick Gordon Walker - Belsen Facts and Thoughts (13:53), BBC

• Radio Broadcast: Harold Osmond Le Druillenec, the only Briton found alive in Belsen describes
       his experience (2:00), BBC

• Radio Broadcast: Helen Bamber shares her memories as a volunteer helping the victims of
       Bergen-Belsen (26:52), BBC

Buchenwald

•  Buchenwald, USHMM

•  Buchenwald, A Photo History of the Camp, The Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora
         Memorials Foundation

•  Videos: Buchenwald, Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive, USHMM

•  Video: Liberation of Buchenwald (1:22), USHMM

•  Radio Broadcast: Buchenwald Concentration Camp-Seven Days after Liberation the Horrors
         are Made Known (11:36), BBC

Dachau

•  Dachau, USHMM

•  Dachau, an animated map presentation, USHMM

•  Dachau, Historical Film Footage, USHMM

•  Videos: Dachau, Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive, USHMM

•  Dachau Timeline, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Personal Stories, Dachau, USHMM

Mauthausen

•  Mauthausen, USHMM

•  Mauthausen Memorial

Terezin

•  Theresienstadt, USHMM

•  Beit Theresienstadt

•  Music in the Terezin Concentration Camp, Boosey & Hawkes

•  The Theresienstadt Ghetto, A Study Guide, American University

•  Video: Nazi Ruse Covered Up Holocaust (11:52), CBS News

• Video: Peter Ginz and the Boys of Vedem (19:22), Centropa
           Traces life of Peter Ginz beginning with invasion of Czechoslovakia, his transport
           and life in Theresienstadt, and ultimate death at Auschwitz.

•  Video: The Fuhrer Gives the Jews a City, Nazi Propaganda Film about Terezin,
           Internet Archive (Part I - 7:48, Part II - 8:12)

•  Terezin Memorial

 

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The Final Stages of War

D-Day

  D-Day, The Imperial War Museum

•  D-Day:  Teachers' Sources, Imperial War Museum

 

The Yalta Conference

•  How Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin Planned to End the Second World War,
          The Imperial War Museum

 

The Auschwitz Bombing Controversy

•  Video: "The Auschwitz Bombing Controversy in Context" (17:00), Dr. David Silberklang,
          Yad Vashem/YouTube

 

Death Marches

•  The Death Marches, Yad Vashem

•  Death Marches, USHMM

•  1944 - Desperate Acts, The Holocaust Chronicle:       

•  Survivor Testimonies: The Death Marches, USHMM

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivors Describe the Death Marches (2:57), Yad           Vashem/YouTube

 

The Aftermath

•  The Aftermath of the Holocaust, USHMM

•  Animated Map: The Aftermath of the Holocaust, USHMM

•  Chart: Estimated Casualties During WWII (including Jews) by Country, Yad Vashem

•  Chart: Estimated Losses to Eastern European Jewry, Yad Vashem

•  Chart: Jewish Victims During the Holocaust - Western Europe & No. Africa, Yad Vashem

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Liberation

•  Liberation, USHMM

•  Liberation of Nazi Camps, USHMM

•  Allied Liberators, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Liberators, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Liberation of Nazi Camps, an animated map, USHMM

•  Liberation of the Concentration Camps, The Imperial War Museum

•  The Liberation of Bergen-Belsen, The Imperial War Museum

•  After Liberation, Yad Vashem

•  Personal Histories: Liberation, USHMM

•  Personal Histories: Aftermath, USHMM

•  Liberation & Survival Lesson Plan, Grades 7-9 (1-2 hrs.), Yad Vashem

•  Everyday Objects/Enduring Legacies: Monkey Puppet, USHMM,
      Pfc. Eldon Nicholas of the U.S. army used this monkey puppet to entertain children at the
      Vittel internment camp in France shortly after it was liberated.

•  Buchenwald and Beyond: Members of the U.S. Army 120th Evac Hospital

•  Buchenwald Concentration Camp Prisoners Identified, famous liberation photo with fate of
          some of the survivors

•  1945 - Liberation and Rebuilding, The Holocaust Chronicle      

•  1945 BBC Broadcast from liberated Bergen-Belsen, surviving prisoners sing "Hatikva"
          (the Hope), which became Israel's National Anthem

•  Radio Broadcast: Captive Children - Red Cross Appeal Seeking Relatives of Liberated
          Children (4:57), BBC

•  Video: "Documenting the Path of American Liberators," USHMM /Teacher Tube

          - Part 1 (7:29)

          - Part 2 (7:49)

          - Part 3 (7:30)

          - Part 4 (8:44)

•  Testimonies:  "Liberators Tell their Stories," USHMM/YouTube

•  Testimonies: "Stories of Liberation," USC Shoah Foundation Institute

•  Testimonies: Liberation, British Library

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivors Describe the Anguish of Liberation (4:23),
          Yad Vashem/YouTube

•  Videos: Atrocities, Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive, USHMM

 

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Displaced Persons

•  Displaced Persons, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Displaced Persons Camps, Yad Vashem

•  Displaced Persons, USHMM

•  The Aftermath of the Holocaust, an animated map presentation, USHMM

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: "Life Reborn: Jewish Displaced Persons, 1945-1951," USHMM

•  Video: Where is the Village? / Vi iz dus geseleh? (4:16), Popular singer Jay Black's recording
          of a popular Yiddish song, set to the visuals of Chagall paintings, offers a sentimental
          glimpse of the Jewish villages lost during the Holocaust.

•  Videos: Displaced Persons, Steven Spielberg Film & Video Archive, USHMM

•  Video: Life After the Holocaust, Survivors, Next Generations (13:28)

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivors Describe Life in the DP Camps (4:35),
          Yad Vashem/YouTube

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War Crime Trials

•  The Aftermath,an animated map presentation, USHMM

•  The Nuremberg Trials and Their Legacy, USHMM

•  War Crime Trials, USHMM

•  Post-War Trials, The Wiener Library

•  "The Judiciary and Nazi Crimes in Postwar Germany," Henry Friedlander, Museum of Tolerance

•  What Became of the Perpetrators?, The Holocaust Explained, London Jewish Cultural Council

•  Nuremberg Trials, Library of Congress

•  The Nuremberg Trials Project, Harvard University

•  The International Military Tribunal for Germany, Yale Law School: Avalon Project

•  Nuremberg Trials, ADL Dimensions Online

•  International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, USHMM

•  Everyday Objects/Enduring Legacies: Headphones, USHMM,
       Albert Speer used these headphones to listen as the International Military Tribunal
       prosecuted him

•  Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, USHMM

•  The Doctor Trials, USHMM

•  The Search for Perpetrators, USHMM

•  Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz: Testimony at Nuremberg, 1946,
          Modern History Sourcebook

•  The Holocaust Chronicle:

          1946 - The Pursuit of Justice

•  Videos: Nuremberg Trials, Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive, USHMM

•  Video: Justice and Accountability After the Holocaust (10:14), USHMM 

The Eichmann Trial

•  Eichmann Trial, USHMM

  Adolf Eichmann, The Nizkor Project

•  The Eichmann Trial: Introduction and Suggestions for Classroom Use, Yad Vashem

•  Fifty Years Since the Eichmann Trial, based on a lecture given by Professor Chana Yablonka
          at Yad Vashem on January 25, 2011

•  Marking 50 Years Since the Eichmann Trial, A Living Record, Yad Vashem

•  Video: The Eichmann Trial (1:01:57), Yad Vashem/YouTube
         
Actual footage of the trial held in Jerusalem.

•  Video: The Eichmann Trial, Steven Spielberg Film & Video Archive, USHMM

•  Video: Justice and Accountability After the Holocaust (10:14), USHMM 

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Denazification

•  Denazification, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Denazification, Yad Vashem

•  Denazification of Germany, USHMM

•  The Nuremberg Trials and Denazification, German Culture

•  The Re-Education of the German People, St. Louis Community College

•  Denazification, Cumulative Review. Report, 1 April 1947 - 30 April 1948,
        U.S. Office of Military Government for Germany

•  Photo: eliminating Nazi names from public places, USHMM

•  Poster used by U.S. Forces to impose collective guilt, Imperial War Museum

•  Video: Nuremberg - Denazification and Nazi Trials (2:30),
        YouTube:The Robert H. Jackson Center

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America & the Holocaust

•  The United States and the Holocaust, USHMM

•  United States Policy and its Impact on European Jews, USHMM

•  United States Policy Toward Jewish Refugees, 1941-1952, USHMM

•  The Wagner-Rogers Bill: Debate, A lesson Plan for Middle & High School Students Learning
          about U.S. Immigration and/or the Holocaust, American Immigration Law Foundation

•  They Spoke Out: Peter Bergson, The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies

•  What We Knew and When We Knew It, Jewish Virtual Library

•  How America Learned of the Holocaust, The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies

•  News Regarding the Holocaust, Yad Vashem

•  Radio Broadcast: The Mysterious Stranger - The Story of Edward Shulte, a German industrialist
          who in 1942 warned the Allies about the Final Solution (44:6), BBC

•  The Political Dr. Seuss: Learn More, PBS

        - Dr. Seuss Went to War: A Catalog of Political Cartons by Dr. Seuss,
                    Mandeville Special Collections Library

        - "The Gallery," PBS

•  Video: "Holocaust: The Untold Story," Newseum

•  "The Allies and the Holocaust" by Dr. David Silberklang, Yad Vashem International Institute
          for Holocaust Research

•  The Story of the One Thousand Children, One Thousand Children, Inc.

•  A Guide to The American Experience Documentary, "America and the Holocaust: Deceit
          and Indifference, Facing History & Ourselves

•  Video: "The First Jewish Broadcast on Nazi Soil, October 1944" (5:44), infolive.tv

•  The Story of Ruth Gruber's Rescue of 1000 Refugees, Safe Haven Museum and Rescue
          Center

•  American Victims, Jewish Virtual Library

War Refugee Board

•  War Refugee Board: Background and Establishment, USHMM

•  War Refugee Board: Activities, USHMM

•  Fort Ontario Emergency Refugee Shelter, USHMM

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Resistance

•  Resistance, an animated map presentation, USHMM

•  Resistance During the Holocaust, a USHMM publication

•  Resistance, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Resistance During the Holocaust, ADL

•  Resisters, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Background: Resistance, British Library

•  Holocaust and Resistance, a Lesson Plan, National Endowment for the Humanities

•  Individual Responsibility and Resistance During the Holocaust, USHMM Lesson Plan

•  Testimonies: Resistance, USHMM

•  Testimonies: Resistance, British Library

•  Survivor Testimonies: Survivors Describe the Underground in France and Hungary (4:05),
           Yad Vashem/YouTube
•  Personal Histories, Resistance, USHMM

Jewish Resistance

•  Jewish Resistance, an animated map presentation, USHMM

•  Jewish Resistance, USHMM

•  Jewish Soldiers in Allied Forces, Yad Vashem

Non-Jewish Resistance

•  Non-Jewish Resistance, USHMM

•  Non-Jewish Resistance, Overview, USHMM

•  Internal Resistance to the Nazi Regime, casahistoria

•  Opposiiton and Resistance in Nazi Germany, Frank McDonough

•  The Rosenstrasse Protest, USHMM

•  Testimonies: Fritz Gluckstein and the Rosenstrasse Protest, USHMM

•  Dietrich Bonhoeffer, An Online Exhibit, USHMM

•  The White Rose, Spartacus Educational (UK)

•  White Rose, USHMM

•  Memories of the White Rose by George J. Wittenstein, M.D., The History Place
•   Jan Karski: How One Man Tried to Stop the Holocaust, remember.org
 
  Includes video (5:38)

Resistance in the Ghettos

•  Spiritual Resistance in the Ghettos, USHMM

•  Resistance in the Ghettos, Yad Vashem

•  "Let the World Read and Know," Witness to the Holocaust - The Oneg Shabbat Archives,
          An Online Exhibit, Yad Vashem

•  Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, a USHMM online exhibition, USHMM

•  Photos of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, zwoje-scrolls.com

•  Video: "The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: (30 min.), USC Shoah Foundation Institute

Resistance in the Camps

•  Resistance in the Death Camps, Yad Vashem

•  Video: "The Sobibor Uprising" (28 min.), USC Shoah Foundation Institute

•  Uprising in Treblinka, The Holocaust History Project

Partisans

•  Armed Jewish Resistance: Partisans, USHMM

•  Partisans, Yad Vashem

•  Jewish Partisans, Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation

         - The Bielski Partisans and the Movie, Defiance

•  Jewish Partisans E-Learning Site, Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation

•  Video: The Bielski Brothers: An Introduction (6:45), Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation

•  Solidarity in the Forest - The Bielski Brothers, Yad Vashem

•  Survivor Testimonies: Holocaust Survivors Describe the Life of a Partisan (1:15),
          Yad Vashem/YouTube

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Rescue

•  Rescuers, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Rescuers, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Rescue, an animated map presentation, USHMM

•  About the Righteous, Yad Vashem

•  "To Save One Life: The Story of Righteous Gentiles," Holocaust Resource Center & Archives,
           Queensborough Community College

•  Rescuer Stories by Country, Jewish Foundation for the Righteous

•  Rescue in the Phillipines

•  "Traits that Transcend," a Poster Set on Rescue, Jewish Foundation for the Righteous 

•  "Traits that Transcend," a Curriculum Framework created by the BHEC

•  "Flickers of Light: The Stories of Six Righteous Among the Nations in Auschwitz,"  Yad Vashem

•  The Righteous Among the Nations, Featured Stories, Yad Vashem

•  Video: Dr. Susanna Kokkonen, Director, Christian Friends of Yad Vashem, speaking at Temple
    Emanu-El in Birmingham, February 2012, The Righteous Among the Nations, Moral Choices
    Under Tyranny and Death (38:45)

•  Personal Histories, Rescue, USHMM

•  Video:  Porcelain Unicorn (3:02)

•  Video:  JFR Reunion Video 2005, "A Story of Moral Courage,"
            Ruth Gamzer and Joanna Szczygiel Zalucka (11:03)

•  Video:  JFR Reunion Video 2006, "A Story of Moral Courage,"
            Lea Poprt and Giedrute Ivanauskai (11:20)

•  Video:  JFR Reunion Video 2007, "A Story of Moral Courage,"
            Irena Walulewica and Golda Bushkanietz (9:30)

•  Video:  JFR Reunion Video 2008, "A Story of Moral Courage,"
            Wiktoria Jaworska Sozanska (13:18)

•  Video:  JFR Reunion Video 2009, "Village on the Rock,"
            Joseph bonder and Bronislaw Firuta (11:41)

•  Video:  JFR Reunion Video 2010, "Life of My Life,"
            Wladyslaw Misiuna and Sara Marmurek (13:59)

•  Video:  JFR Reunion Video 2011, "The Widow and Her Angels,"
            Egle and Aurimas Ruzgys and Mary Katz Erlich (13:17)

AMERICANS WHO RESCUED

Varian Fry

•  Varian Fry, USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia

•  Varian Fry, Jewish Foundation for the Righteous
•  The Rescue of Marc Chagall, The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies

Martha and Waitstill Sharp

•  Martha and Waitstill Sharp, USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia

•  Martha and Rev. Waitstill Sharp, Holocaust Survivors and Remembrance Project

•  Martha and Waitstill Sharp, Jewish Foundation for the Righteous

 

Lois Gunden

•  American Woman Named Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem, Yad Vashem

 

Master Sergeant Roddie Edmonds

•  American Named Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem,
   First American Soldier to be Recognized to Date, Yad Vashem

GROUPS/COUNTRIES THAT RESCUED

Denmark

•  The Rescue of the Jews of Denmark, a USHMM online exhibition

•  Denmark, Personal Stories, USHMM

•  "Rescue in October...the Rescue of the Danish Jews," a Unit of Study,
           Jewish Foundation for the Righteous

Zegota

•  "Zegota - Council for Aid to Jews," a Unit of Study, Jewish Foundation for the Righteous

Muslim Albanians

•  Besa: A Code of Honor, Muslim Albanians who Rescued Jews During the Holocaust,
         Yad Vashem

 

DIPLOMATS WHO RESCUED

Chiune Sugihara

•  ONLINE EXHIBITION: Flight and Rescue, USHMM

          The story of Dutch businessman, Jan Zwartendijk, and Chiune Sugihara, a Japanese
          diplomat, who found safety for some 2,100 Jewish refugees.

•  "Visas for Life: The Remarkable Story of Chiune & Yukiko Sugihara and the Rescue of
          Thousands of Jews, Simon Wiesenthal Center

Aristides De Sousa Mendes

•  The Insubordinate Consul, Aristides De Sousa Mendes, Yad Vashem

•  Sousa Mendes Foundation

INDIVIDUALS WHO RESCUED

Nicholas Winton

•  Nicholas Winton and the Rescue of Children from Czechoslovakia, 1938-1938, USHMM

•  "Nicholas Winton, The Power of Good," support for the film, Gelman Educational Foundation

•  Nicholas Winton, includes short video (1:39) of reunion with those he saved.

The Leica Freedom Train

•  The Leica Freedom Train, aish.com

Raoul Wallenberg

•  Raoul Wallenberg, Jewish Foundation for the Righteous

Irena Sendler

•  Irena's Children, the Story of Irena Sendler's Rescue Efforts by Gavriel Horan

•  Irena Sendler, Jewish Foundation for the Righteous

•  Life in a Jar: The Irena Sendler Project

 

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Memorials

•  Video: Why We Remember the Holocaust (8:54), USHMM

•  Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, Jerusalem

•  U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum

•  U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, YouTube Video (1:24)

•  Camp Memorials, A-M, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Camp Memorials, N-Z, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Other Memorials, A-B, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Other Memorials, C-Z, A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust

•  Holocaust Memorials, University of Minnesota, Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies

•  The Holocaust Chronicle:

          Epilogue: The Aftermath

 

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Holocaust Denial

•  Holocaust Denial on Trial: Using History to Confront Distortions, Emory University

•  Holocaust Denial, Jewish Virtual Library

•  Deborah Lipstadt's Blog, Emory University

•  Voices on Antisemitism: Deborah Lipstadt - A Podcast, March 14, 2007, USHMM

•  Denying the Holocaust by Deborah Lipstadt, BBC

•  Holocaust Deniers and Public Misinformation, USHMM

•  Combating Holocaust Denial: Origins of Holocaust Denial, USHMM

•  Holocaust Denial, a USHMM Special Focus

•  United Nations Press Release: General Assembly adopts resolution condemning any denial
            of the Holocaust (2007)

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Page last updated: January 19, 2017